Gaa: hiti (Dhungedhara)

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Namaste!

You have arrived at Gaa: hiti located in the Gaahiti tole of Thamel. This is one of the 573 dhunge dhara (stoned spouts) in the Kathmandu valley. Gaa: hiti is found on the eastern side of Bhagwan bahal. It is believed to be made by the sisters of Sarthavaha, the legendary trader who went to trade in Tibet in the 7th Century. Thus, Gaa: hiti is considered as a part of bhagwan bahal.

Ga hiti, is a lot more than a water source and unlike other Dhundedharas. This structure underneath the ground level consists of several sculptures of deities famous in Hindu mythology. The sprouts have the structure of Makara, the carrier of Ganga, the Hindu goddess of water. It was Bhagirath who brought Ganga from heaven to Earth. Therefore, there is the presence of Bhagirath underneath the sprout. Other structures that are usually featured in the sprout are cow, goat, elephant, cock, and tiger. 

Before the dhungedhara (stoned spout) was discovered, this open space used to be a marshy pond. People didn’t know that this beautiful blend of art and technology existed within the marshy pond. While renovating the dhungedhara, locals also discovered an old manuscript (shilapatra) which dated this dhungedhara to 738 AD. 

As you can see there are a total of 4 water taps in Gaa: hiti. The main water spout faces west while the other three face south. Several idols of deities from Hindu mythology such as Chepu and Makara are found on the water spout which, as you see, adds beauty to the stone structure while giving it a cultural and religious significance. Likewise, on the top of the spout, there is an idol of Lord Vishnu. On its left lies the idol of Uma maheshwor whereas the idol of Lokeshwor lies on the right. 

Dhunge Dhara is regarded as a traditional waterway in the Newari tribe of Kathmandu valley. They are used for drinking water, bathing as well as washing laundry. The way Dhunge Dhara work is pretty interesting too 

Dhungedhara absorbs the rainwater to form its natural water source. Not to entirely depend on rainwater, several ponds and channels to nearby rivers can also be found in dhungedharas. The working mechanism of dhunge dhara is very interesting. Despite being so old, the technologies used are very advanced. They use gravity to channel the water, have a systematic flow that regulates the water, water purification system, and advanced drainage system to avoid blockage. It is said that the flowing water is cold in the summer and hot in the winters.

References
Rukmani Wanta Pradhan (2016): Bikramshila Mahavihar

नमस्ते!

ठमेलको गाहिटी टोलमा अवस्थित गाः हिटीमा तपाईलाई स्वागत छ। यो काठमाडौं उपत्यकामा रहेका ५७३ ढुङ्गेधारा (ढुङ्गेधारा) मध्ये एक हो। गा: हिटी भगवान बहलको पूर्वी दिशा मा रहेको छ। यो सिंहसार्थ बाहुका दिदीबहिनी “निनि घ” ले बनाएको भन्ने जनविश्वास रहेको भएपनि प्रमाणको अभावमा यो कुरालाई यथार्थ हो भनेर किटान गर्न सकिदैन।

ढुङ्गेधारा (ढुङ्गेधारा) पत्ता लाग्नु अघि यो खुला ठाउँ दलदली पोखरी थियो। मानिसहरूलाई थाहा थिएन कि कला र प्रविधिको यो सुन्दर मिश्रण दलदली पोखरी भित्र अवस्थित थियो। ढुङ्गेधाराको जीर्णोद्धार गर्दा स्थानीयवासीले ७३८ सालको ढुंगेधाराको पुरानो पाण्डुलिपि (शिलापत्र) पनि फेला पारे।

गा: हिटिमा जम्मा ४ वटा पानीका धारा छन्। मुख्य हिटि पश्चिमतर्फ र अन्य तीन दक्षिणतर्फ फर्केको छ । हिन्दू पौराणिक कथाहरू संग सम्बन्धित, चेपु र मकरा जस्तै धेरै देवताहरूको मूर्तिहरू पानीको मुहान छेउछाउमा पाइन्छ जसले ढुङ्गाको संरचनालाई सांस्कृतिक र धार्मिक महत्त्व दिँदै सुन्दरता थप्छ। त्यसैगरी टुप्पोको माथिल्लो भागमा भगवान विष्णुको मुर्ति छ । यसको देब्रेपट्टि उमा महेश्वरको मूर्ति छ भने दाहिनेपट्टि लोकेश्वरको मूर्ति छ।

ढुंगेधारालाई काठमाडौं उपत्यकाको नेवारी जनजातिको परम्परागत जलमार्ग मानिन्छ। तिनीहरू पिउने पानी, नुहाउन र लुगा धुनका लागि प्रयोग गरिन्छ। ढुंगेधाराको काम गर्ने तरिका पनि निकै रोचक छ।

ढुंगेधाराले वर्षाको पानी सोसेर प्राकृतिक पानीको स्रोत बनाउँछ।

गैह्रीधाराको चोकमा अशोक चैत्यसँगै अरु दुइटा सादा चैत्यहरू छन् । यिनीहरू लिच्छविकालीन चैत्य हुन् । हेर्दा यो चैत्य बहालको मुख्य ढोका बाहिरका चैत्यको भाग हुनुपर्दछ भन्ने देखिन्छ । भुइँमा नवग्रह भनिने ढुङ्गाका नौवटा चक्काको दुई पत्र छन् । यो लुम्बिनीस्थित मायादेवी मन्दिरनजिकै रहेको भोटिभ चैत्य रुप को छ । तर यहाँ यसलाई स्तूप वा चैत्य नभनी नवग्रह भनिएको छ । ग्रहशान्ति गर्नुपर्दा यहाँ पूजा गरिने गरिन्थ्यो तर आजभोलि यो त्यसै रहेको छ । यस्तै प्रकारको नवग्रहको नौ चक्का पशुपतिमन्दिर क्षेत्रको चोकमा पनि अवस्थित छ .

सन्दर्भहरू
रुक्मणी वन्ता प्रधान (2016): विक्रमशिला महाविहार

 

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